10am class

Greetings, all!  Today’s focus is on citations.  We ignored this in the drafts.  But now is the moment you want to focus on those nit-picky details.  Citations will count up to 1/3 of a letter grade in the final proposal/biblio.  So you want to get them right. Use my citation tipsheets (top menu) & Lipson, Cite Right.

Note:  Sometimes you have a source that doesn’t quite fit with the models.  In that case, follow its closest models, creating your own hybrid form for that type of source. As long as your citations are consistent, follow Chicago biblio style as closely as possible, with my Tipsheet exceptions (note what those are!), and include all the relevant info, you’ll be fine.

To work on this for class, everyone please do this:   Pick one citation you’re having trouble with.  Post it here as a COMMENT.  Once we have a few up (say 5 minutes or so), I’ll pick a few we’ll work on together.  You’ll post suggested edits.  And you’ll pose any questions you have.


39 thoughts on “10am class”

  1. Ringgold, Faith. “The Civil Rights Triangle.” 1963. We Flew Over the Bridge. Duke UP. 145. 2004.

    Unsure if this citation is correct because I found the image in a book, and want to list the title of both the image and the book itself.

  2. Hyde, Anne. Review of Culture, Technology, and the Creation of America’s National Parks, by Richard Grusin. Journal of American History, 92, 4 (2006): 1450-1451.

    It won’t let me italicize, but “Review of Culture, Technology, and the Creation of America’s National Parks” and “Journal of American History” should be italicized.

  3. Johnson. “Captain America Prisoners.” Cover Browser. Philipp Lenssen, 2002. Web. 8 Feb. 2015. .

    Unsure about this one because of the years.

  4. Grisham, Lori. “Bill Clinton portrait may include Lewinsky reference.” USA Today.
    I want to use the article, but also the images within the article, so I’m unsure how to cite it.

  5. Popa, Diana E.. “Multimodal metaphors in political entertainment.” Review of Cognitive
    Linguistics, Vol.11, Issue 2 (2013): 303-319.

    I wasn’t sure if there should be two periods after the “E” because it’s an initial, but also the end of the name.

  6. “MIRROR OF SLAVERY.” Liberator (1831-1865) Jan 04 1834: 1-7b ProQuest

    When I copy and pasted the citation the Liberator along with (1831-1865) were underlined…so its that the right way? Also is the date, Jan 04 1834 supposed to be written out like that?

  7. Give Me Your Tired, Your Poor, Your HIV Negative. N.d. Stephen A. Schwarzman Building / Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York City. Comp. Gran Fury. NYPL Digital Gallery. Web.

    There are a lot of posters where I am unsure of the photographer/artist. Do we write unknown or just leave that out entirely?

  8. Riis, Jacob A. “Light in Dark Places.” Century Illustrated Magazine (1881-1906) LIII, no. 2, December 1896, 247. American Periodicals, accessed February 22, 2015, http://search.proquest.com/docview/125520712?accountid=11243.

    I was confused about the title of the magazine and if it should have the volume number and issue number

    [PT: Normally for magazine & newspaper articles, you don’t include vol. & issue, unlike for academic journals articles.) Since this is a stable document, you don’t need to cite access date. But I do like you including the database since it is a historical magazine not readily available elsewhere.]

  9. Gary Yanker to the Library of Congress, “Iranian Posters on the Iraq-Iran War,” 71 photographs 1981-1982, Call Number: LOT 13713 (G) [P&P], Prints and Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.

    It is a collection of photos at the library of Congress, not sure exactly how I am supposed to site it, so I sited it as an archive.

    [PT: looks pretty good. we’re working on another collection citation below. but yours is the physical location, so a little different. In practice few use the call number in citaitons, but it is nice to do it. You’d say Prints and Photographs Division.]

  10. Cherenov, V., Reshetov, A., Kozlov, V. “Что делать?” Perestroika Era Poster Series Circa 1980-1989, Duke Digital Collections Archive, 1988. http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/

    So the issues that I am having with this image is that it is located in the duke database and cannot find a citation that has the original picture. I am not sure as to italicize the collection.

    (Jesus Montes)

    [PT: pretty close. But what is the 1988 date?]

  11. Okay, so most of these are already modeled in my tipsheet. Check that out and follow the models as closely as you can.

    One principal you should all follow: when you have one thing appearing in another thing, cite Thing A fully first, then Thing B. See my examples on the Tipsheet for images printed in books.

    For a photograph or illustration in a newspaper or magazine, look for the photographer’s name, & you can use the first few words of the caption as the title of the photograph. Then you simply follow the rest of the format for a newspaper article.

    For a historical photograph or other image printed in a 2ndary source book, see my example in the Tipsheet.

  12. Note, though that my Tipsheet models footnote style. Biblio differs in two ways: The author/creator’s last name goes first. And the elements are often separated by periods instead of commas. Use Lipson to model these differences.

  13. Del Castillo, Ramon. Cesar Chavez Mural. Image. 2010. 1273. Denver Public Library Digital Collections.

    This is a photograph of a mural, so I am unsure if I need to add more to the citation about the specifics of the mural.

    [PT: this is an interesting case. See my thoughts on it below.]

  14. Do we include both volume and issue number for journals, or just the volume number?

    [PT: Check the models on the tipsheet. I often use an abbreviated version, though, so vol. 39, issue 3 looks like “39.3”]

  15. So for the Chavez mural, you would cite it as a photograph (including the date of the photo–is that 2010?), but the caption would be (if it does not have a title) a brief description, which may include the date of the mural, if it is known.

    On the dates for digitized items, generally nobody cites the date of digitization (though technically that is a reprint). You want to look for the original date of the item.

    And on this one, what is the number “1273”? is that a catalog number or other identifying number? And you would not state “Image.” YOu would say Photograph. (Everyone–work to find the most precise nouns for the objects you have, and make sure they are accurate–don’t call an engraving a photograph, etc.)

  16. Professor, what if the book is constructed by the artist himself? would it still be considered a secondary source, because in my case it only contains photos by a particular artist

    [PT: sounds like a primary source to me, if the photographer is the author of the book.]

  17. Do we include the URLS for primary source images and secondary source academic journals?
    ..just to be clear

    [PT: Check the models on the tipsheet. The answer is there.]

  18. Professor, when it comes down to the articles, we do not have to have the website for it correct?

    For example,

    Marsh, Rosalind. “The nature of Russia’s identity: the theme of ‘Russia and the West’ in post-Soviet culture.” Nationalities Papers 35, no. 3 (July 1, 2007): 555-578. International Political Science Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed February 27, 2015).

    Would that be fine?

  19. For academic journal articles, RIGHT, please do not cite the database. Most journals themselves omit this in their citation styles (look at your own articles’ footnotes). MLA likes to include them, but journals that use Chicago do not, even though Chicago says to.

    Here’s the point: citation styles are always editorial decisions. My logic (as editor here) is that citing the database for a journal article is like saying “I got it from Gelman Library.”

    But note the exception on my tipsheet.

  20. So for the Marsh example above, delete all reference to the database & access date, etc. This is a stable document so no need to cite access date.

  21. But everyone, please, I want you to try this example because it is complicated: Go to this URL and come back with a citation for the collection. How do you date the collection? How do you cite this website the Nat Archives is using?

    Malestestra Family, January 1908
  22. While you’re doing that, note that I just remembered I can edit your comments, so I’m using that to add my answers to specific questions above.

  23. Just to make sure I am citing the images within a database correctly, would :

    Block, Herbert, “Thou shalt not read,” Political Cartoon, July 16, 1949, Herbert L. Block Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/acd/

    Be correct?

    [Be looking correct to me! You don’t need to capitalize political cartoon.]

  24. Professor, I get that we’re not supposed to cite from where we find our sources. But what about if we are using an archive or museum exhibit wherein the organization has bought ownership of the image?

    [PT: see the examples in the tipsheet.]

  25. I dated the collection by using the time period given in the biography about him. He started working for the National Child Labor Committee in 1908 and this collection of photographs is from part of that

  26. Hine, Lewis. “The Progressive Era” ca. 1908. The U.S. National Archives, College Park, MD, accessed March 6, 2015,
    Not sure if that is correct or not.

  27. When do we add access dates to our citations?

    [PT: the best rule is to do it when the item is inherently unstable–for webpages and digital collections that may change at some point, so you can at least say “it was like that when I found it!”]

  28. Hine, Lewis. “The Progressive Era.” 1908. The United States National Archives, accessed 6 March 2015.

  29. This one is tricky: it is a collection of images online, posted by National Archives. this is not their entire Hine collection they have on site. So yes, you cite it more or less like a website. Since it is unstable (they could add photos, remove them, or change or delete the online collection), you should cite the access date.

    So you’d want to include:
    collection title: “Lewis Hine – The Progressive Era”
    collection dates: 1908 to whenever it stops (I found them saying “over the next decade” so I’d say [ca. 1908-1918]–put it in brackets since you are imputing that date, unless you find them state the date range clearly.
    institution and name of this site: they call it U. S. National Archives Photostream.
    then the website URL & your access date.

  30. Okay, everybody, the big take-away here is that citation styles are arbitrary. Editors (me, in this case) can alter them at will. I have done so and given you models of as many as I could think of on the tipsheet. So please check over that closely and follow those models as closely as you can.

    Also: I’m forgiving on this. As long as they look very close to the models–e.g. it is clear that you used the tipsheet and followed the models and guidelines there–and your citations include all the relevant info & look consistent–meaning that if you must improvise & create hybrid citations, that you do them similarly–you’ll be fine!

    If you have more questions, post them here today and I’ll answer them individually by editing the comment. Read others’ questions & my answers as well.

    Have a great break!

  31. Lewis Hine, “Lewis Hine – The Progressive Era” [ca. 1908-1918]. U.S. National Archives Photostream, The U.S. National Archives, College Park, MD, accessed February 8, 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/sets/72157630403221230/.

    Would you include the photographer’s name at the beginning? Would you cite where the National Archives is or only the U.S. National Archives Photostream?

    For the Library of Congress, when you can access the small files online but have to go in to download the large files, would you cite them like above or like a stable collection?

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